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### A90D SIN

Submitted by Steve Fewell

Description:

Clear the carry flag - to indicate that the Sine result is required.
Continue to the COS routine (&A90E) to continue the calculation as follows.

Store the 6502 flags to the 6502 stack, so that the carry flag can be checked later.
Call routine &A93A to obtain the Floating-Point argument and calculate the Sine or Cosine value (the value returned
will be either COS or SIN - depending on the value of the Floating-Point argument.

Routine &A93A does the following:
* Call routine &96DA to obtain the value at the Text pointer B location (convert it to Float if it is
Integer or issue 'Type mismatch' error if it is a String value).
* If the FWA exponent (location &30) is more than or equal to #&98 then issue 'Accuracy lost' error
as the FWA value is too large to use to calculate the SIN/COS value.
* Store the FWA value to temporary Floating point value location &046C-&0470.
* Set the argument pointer (&4A-&4B) to &BF2E (which points to the Float value 1.57079633 in the
Floating-Point constant table).
* Call &A4E0 to unpack the Floating-Point constant at &BF2E (1.57079633, which is PI/2) to the FWB
* Store the FWA sign (location &2E) in the FWB sign byte (location &3B) so that the PI/2 value has
the same sign as the argument (the FWA value).
* Decrement the FWB exponent (location &3C) to divide the FWB value by 2 - so the FWB now contains the
value 0.785398165.
* Call routine &A692 to add the FWB value (PI/4) to the FWA value.
* Set A to #&33.
* Call routine &A9D4 to set the argument pointer (&4A-&4B) to &BF00 + A = &BF33 (which points to
the Float value 0.636619772 (which is 2/PI) in the Floating-Point constant table)
and then multiply the FWA by the Float value pointed to by the argument pointer (&4A-&4B).
* Call routine &96C3 to convert the Float value (FWA) to an Integer and place the result in the IWA.
* Store A (the LSB of the IWA value - from location &2A) in location &49.
* If the Integer value (&2A-&2C) is zero then jump to &A98D (as the FWA value does not need to be
reduced to a value within the required range -(PI/4) to (PI/4) [i.e. -0.785398 to 0.785398]),
so [&A98D] load the FWA with the original Sine/Cosine argument (from location &046C-&0470).
* Otherwise, the FWA value is out of the Sine/Cosine range, and needs to be reduced, so:
* Call &8189 to convert the Integer value (IWA) to a Float and store the result in the temporary
Floating-point variable located at &0471-&0475.
* Then set the argp pointer (&4A-&4B) to pointer to &BF24 (which is the Floating-point constant
value -1.57080078) and multiply the FWA by this constant.
* Set the argp pointer (&4A-&4B) to point to the temporary Floating-point variable location &046C
(which is the original FWA Sine/Cosine argument value) and add the Floating-Point
value at &046C-&0470 to the FWA value.
* Store the result in temporary Floating-Point value location &046C-&0470.
* Set the FWA to the Floating-Point value stored at location &0471-&0475 (the IWA value).
* Set the argp pointer (&4A-&4B) to point to &BF29 (the address of the value 0.00000445445511
in the Floating-Point constant table).
* Multiply the FWA by the Floating-Point constant 0.00000445445511 (store the result in the FWA).
* Set the argp pointer (&4A-&4B) to &046C and add the Floating-Point value at &046C-&0470
to the FWA.
* Jump to &A990 to perform the Sine/Cosine calculation as the value is now within the required range.
* [A990] Store the FWA value (the actual Sine/Cosine argument, which has been reduced where necessary) to location
&0476-&047A.
* Multiply the FWA by the Floating-point value at &0476-&047A (i.e. square the FWA value).
* Set X to #&74 (i.e. the LSB of the first fraction to apply)
* Set A to #&92 (i.e. the LSB of the default value (if the FWA value is too small to evaluate)
* Set Y to #&02 (the number of continued-fraction expansion cycles to evaluate)
* Call routine &A861 to evaluate the continued-fraction expansions, as follows:
* If the FWA exponent is less than #&40 then the FWA value is too small to evaluate, so exit with the
FWA set to the Floating-Point constant at &BF92 (i.e. 1.0).
* Calculate the reciple of the FWA value (FWA = 1/FWA) and store the result in the FWA and location
&046C-&0470
* Add the Floating-Point constant at &BF74 (-0.0119090311) to the FWA
* Cycle 1:
* Divide the Floating-Point constant at &BF79 (0.000107499459) by the FWA, storing the result in the FWA.
* Add the Floating-Point constant at &BF7E (-0.0171640246) to the FWA.
* Add the Reciple value (from location &046C-&0470) to the FWA.
* Cycle 2:
* Divide the Floating-Point constant at &BF83 (0.0013095369) by the FWA, storing the result in the FWA.
* Add the Floating-Point constant at &BF88 (0.0499999922) to the FWA.
* Add the Reciple value (from location &046C-&0470) to the FWA.
Last Cycle calculation:
* Divide the Floating-Point constant at &BF8D (-0.166666666) by the FWA, storing the result in the FWA.
* Add the Floating-Point constant at &BF92 (1.0) to the FWA.
* Multiply the FWA by the Temporary Floating-Point variable stored at location &0476-&047A (the argument
value).
* Exit with A = #&FF (as the result is a Floating-Point value in the FWA)

Now, the FWA contains either the Sine result or the Cosine result (which will have to be converted to the value
requested by the user).

Retrieve the carry flag value from the 6502 stack.
The carry flag is clear, indicating that a Sine result is required (therefore, the value at location &49 is not
incremented.

[&A923] If bit 0 of location &49 is clear (i.e. the original argument was an even value (in the case of Sine) - or
an odd value (in the case of Cosine)) then Set A to #&FF (to indicate that the result is a Floating-point value) and
[&A917] check the value in location &49 - if bit 1 is not set then complement the FWA value (FWA=-FWA) and exit;
otherwise, just exit.
Otherwise, bit 0 of location &49 is set (indicating that the original argument was odd (in the case of Sine) or even (in
the case of Cosine); so, adjust the calculated result as follows:
* Square the FWA value (FWA = FWA * FWA),
* Subtract the FWA value from 1 (FWA=1.0-FWA) and
* Set the FWA value to the square root of the FWA (FWA=SQR(FWA)).
[&A917] check the value in location &49 - if bit 1 is not set then complement the FWA value (FWA=-FWA) and exit;
otherwise, just exit.

Example 1: SIN(1.5)
Set &046C = 1.5 (the argument)
Set FWB to 0.785398165 (PI/4)
FWA = FWA + FWB = 2.285398
FWA = FWA * 0.636619772 = 1.4549294
?&49 = 1 (Integer part of FWA value). FWA = IWA = 1
Store the FWA in &0471
FWA = FWA * -1.57080078 = -1.57080078
FWA = FWA + &046C = -0.07080078
Store FWA in &046C
Store &0471 (1) in FWA
FWA = FWA * 0.0000044544511 = 0.0000044544511
FWA = FWA + &046C = -0.0707963255
Store the FWA in &0476
FWA = FWA * FWA = 0.0050121197
[&A861]: FWA = 1 / FWA = 199.51638
Store FWA in &046C
FWA = FWA + -0.0119090311 = 199.504474778
FWA = 0.000107499 / FWA = 0.00000005388
FWA = -0.017164024 + FWA = -0.017163485
FWA = &046C + FWA = 199.499216515
FWA = 0.0013095369 / FWA = 0.000006564
FWA = 0.04999999 + FWA = 0.050006554
FWA = &046C + FWA = 199.566387
FWA = -0.16666666 / FWA = -0.00083514
FWA = 1 + FWA = 0.999164856
FWA = FWA * &0476 = -0.070737200377

Location &49 contains the value 1
Bit 0 of &49 is set, so adjust the calculated value as follows:
FWA = FWA * FWA = 0.005003751517
FWA = 1 - FWA = 0.9949962484828
FWA = SQR(FWA) = 0.99749498669558
Bit 1 of &49 is not set, so exit with FWA unchanged.

Example 2: SIN(-0.75)
Set &046C = -0.75 (the argument)
Set FWB to -0.785398165 -(PI/4)
FWA = FWA + FWB = -1.535398165
FWA = FWA * 0.636619772 = -0.9774646
?&49 = 0 (Integer part of FWA value). FWA = IWA = 0
[&A98D] As &49 is 0, store value at &046C in FWA = -0.75
Store the FWA in &0476
FWA = FWA * FWA = 0.5625
[&A861]: FWA = 1 / FWA = 1.777777
Store FWA in &046C
FWA = FWA + -0.0119090311 = 1.7896868
FWA = 0.000107499 / FWA = 0.00006
FWA = -0.017164024 + FWA = -0.0171039
FWA = &046C + FWA = 1.7606737
FWA = 0.0013095369 / FWA = 0.0007437
FWA = 0.04999999 + FWA = 0.0507436
FWA = &046C + FWA = 1.8285213
FWA = -0.16666666 / FWA = -0.0911482
FWA = 1 + FWA = 0.9088517
FWA = FWA * &0476 = -0.6816387

Location &49 contains the value 0
Bits 0 and 1 of &49 are not set, so exit with FWA unchanged.

Example 3: SIN(0.0)
Set &046C = 0.0 (the argument)
Set FWB to 0.785398165 (PI/4)
FWA = FWA + FWB = 0.785398165
FWA = FWA * 0.636619772 = 0.50000000
?&49 = 0 (Integer part of FWA value). FWA = IWA = 0
[&A98D] As &49 is 0, store value at &046C in FWA = 0.0
Store the FWA in &0476
FWA = FWA * FWA = 0.0
[&A861]: FWA = 1.0 (as argument is zero)
FWA = FWA * &0476 = 0.0

Location &49 contains the value 0
Bits 0 and 1 of &49 are not set, so exit with FWA unchanged.

Example 4: SIN(0.25)
Set &046C = 0.25 (the argument)
Set FWB to 0.785398165 (PI/4)
FWA = FWA + FWB = 1.0353982
FWA = FWA * 0.636619772 = 0.6591548
?&49 = 0 (Integer part of FWA value). FWA = IWA = 0
[&A98D] As &49 is 0, store value at &046C in FWA = 0.25
Store the FWA in &0476
FWA = FWA * FWA = 0.0625
[&A861]: FWA = 1 / FWA = 16
Store FWA in &046C
FWA = FWA + -0.0119090311 = 15.988091
FWA = 0.000107499 / FWA = 0.0000067
FWA = -0.0171640246 + FWA = -0.0171572
FWA = &046C + FWA = 15.982843
FWA = 0.0013095369 / FWA = 0.0000819
FWA = 0.04999999 + FWA = 0.0500818
FWA = &046C + FWA = 16.050082
FWA = -0.16666666 / FWA = -0.0103841
FWA = 1 + FWA = 0.9896158
FWA = FWA * &0476 = 0.2474039

Location &49 contains the value 0
Bits 0 and 1 of &49 are not set, so exit with FWA unchanged.

Example 5: SIN(2.41)
Set &046C = 2.41 (the argument)
Set FWB to 0.785398165 (PI/4)
FWA = FWA + FWB = 3.195398
FWA = FWA * 0.636619772 = 2.0342533
?&49 = 2 (Integer part of FWA value). FWA = IWA = 2
Store the FWA in &0471
FWA = FWA * -1.57080078 = -3.1416014
FWA = FWA + &046C = -0.7316014
Store FWA in &046C
Store &0471 (2) in FWA
FWA = FWA * 0.0000044544511 = 0.0000089
FWA = FWA + &046C = -0.7315924
Store the FWA in &0476
FWA = FWA * FWA = 0.5352275
[&A861]: FWA = 1 / FWA = 1.8683641
Store FWA in &046C
FWA = FWA + -0.0119090311 = 1.8564551
FWA = 0.000107499 / FWA = 0.0000057
FWA = -0.017164024 + FWA = -0.0171583
FWA = &046C + FWA = 1.8512058
FWA = 0.0013095369 / FWA = 0.0007073
FWA = 0.04999999 + FWA = 0.0507072
FWA = &046C + FWA = 1.9190714
FWA = -0.16666666 / FWA = -0.0868475
FWA = 1 + FWA = 0.9131524
FWA = FWA * &0476 = -0.6680554

Location &49 contains the value 2
Bit 0 of &49 is not set, so no need to adjust the calculated value
Bit 1 of &49 is set, so FWA = - FWA = 0.6680554

Example 6: SIN(5.63)
Set &046C = 5.63 (the argument)
Set FWB to 0.785398165 (PI/4)
FWA = FWA + FWB = 6.415398
FWA = FWA * 0.636619772 = 4.0841688
?&49 = 4 (Integer part of FWA value). FWA = IWA = 4
Store the FWA in &0471
FWA = FWA * -1.57080078 = -6.2832028
FWA = FWA + &046C = -0.6532028
Store FWA in &046C
Store &0471 (4) in FWA
FWA = FWA * 0.0000044544511 = 0.0000178
FWA = FWA + &046C = -0.6531849
[&A990] Store the FWA in &0476
FWA = FWA * FWA = 0.4266506
[&A861]: FWA = 1 / FWA = 2.3438381
Store FWA in &046C
FWA = FWA + -0.0119090311 = 2.3319291
FWA = 0.000107499 / FWA = 0.000046
FWA = -0.017164024 + FWA = -0.0171179
FWA = &046C + FWA = 2.3267202
FWA = 0.0013095369 / FWA = 0.0056282
FWA = 0.04999999 + FWA = 0.0556281
FWA = &046C + FWA = 2.3994662
FWA = -0.16666666 / FWA = -0.0694598
FWA = 1 + FWA = 0.9305401
FWA = FWA * &0476 = -0.6078147

Location &49 contains the value 4
Bits 0 and 1 of &49 are not set, so exit with FWA unchanged.

Example 7: SIN(90)
Set &046C = 90 (the argument)
Set FWB to 0.785398165 (PI/4)
FWA = FWA + FWB = 90.785398
FWA = FWA * 0.636619772 = 57.795773
?&49 = 57 (Integer part of FWA value). FWA = IWA = 57
Store the FWA in &0471
FWA = FWA * -1.57080078 = -89.53564
FWA = FWA + &046C = 0.4643601
Store FWA in &046C
Store &0471 (57) in FWA
FWA = FWA * 0.0000044544511 = 0.0002539
FWA = FWA + &046C = 0.464614
Store the FWA in &0476
FWA = FWA * FWA = 0.2158661
[&A861]: FWA = 1 / FWA = 4.6324998
Store FWA in &046C
FWA = FWA + -0.0119090311 = 4.6205908
FWA = 0.000107499 / FWA = 0.0000023
FWA = -0.017164024 + FWA = -0.0171616
FWA = &046C + FWA = 4.6153381
FWA = 0.0013095369 / FWA = 0.0002837
FWA = 0.04999999 + FWA = 0.0502836
FWA = &046C + FWA = 4.6827834
FWA = -0.16666666 / FWA = -0.0355913
FWA = 1 + FWA = 0.9644086
FWA = FWA * &0476 = 0.4480777

Location &49 contains the value 57 (0011 1001)
Bit 0 of &49 is set, so adjust the calculated value as follows:
FWA = FWA * FWA = 0.2007736
FWA = 1 - FWA = 0.7992263
FWA = SQR(FWA) = 0.8939945
Bit 1 of &49 is not set, so exit with FWA unchanged.

This diagram shows the relationship between the trig functions.

### Disassembly for the SIN routine

 A90D 024 18 CLC A90E ...COS routine... Or 